Becoming a confident investor starts with having foundational knowledge about how the market works and what your investment options are. Even if you are working closely with a financial advisor, it’s always in your best interest to be acquainted with the ways in which your wealth is being managed.
Getting familiar with common investment vehicles is an important step. While you probably have a general idea of what a stock is, you may not be aware of what an ETF is or the difference between individual stocks and ETFs, so let’s take a look.
What is a Stock?
When a corporation’s ownership is divided into portions, it means there is shared ownership of the company. The portions, or shares, are known as stock, and with publicly-held companies, this is what’s traded on stock exchanges like the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) or the Nasdaq. By buying a stock, you are buying a portion of the company, and when you own a stock, you are an individual shareholder, laying claim to a portion of the company’s assets and earnings.
Companies issue shares to raise capital, which enables them to fund business operations. So when you buy stock in a company, you’re putting up your money to fund the business in exchange for a portion of a claim on future company earnings. In other words, you’re betting on the company’s executives to be able to create gains that will allow you to sell your shares at some point down the line—short or long-term—to recoup your investment and get a return.
What is an ETF?
ETF is short for exchange-traded fund. Like a stock, an ETF also trades on the stock exchange, but it doesn’t represent an individual share in a company. It’s a pooled investment fund, professionally managed, similar to a mutual fund, that purchases a diverse range of assets— stocks, commodities, bonds, and other securities—and places them into what’s referred to as a basket. For example, the ETF could represent a commodity, such as gold or oil, track a particular sector or index, like the S&P 500 or the Dow Jones Industrial Average, or include stocks and bonds that meet given criteria.
With an ETF, instead of buying shares in a company, as an investor, you would buy shares of the fund and the fund itself holds the underlying assets. But ETFs differ from mutual funds because you don’t have to buy it directly from the mutual fund company or use a full-service broker. In essence, an ETF trades and distributes dividends like a stock, but it is an investment vehicle that allows you to diversify your investments.
What are the Pros and Cons of an ETF vs. a Stock?
Understanding the benefits and drawbacks of investing in an ETF versus buying individual stocks can get complex, but it is important to know what the potential benefits are and what limitations can come into play.
Pros of investing in ETFs
The most obvious benefit of investing in ETFs is that the fund inherently brings more diversification to your portfolio than buying individual stock. By diversifying, you are spreading your risk, minimizing the impact of market volatility, and more easily obtaining an optimal allocation aligned with your financial goals.
Additionally, an ETF allows you to tap into the investment strategy of the fund. Rather than selecting individual stocks based on time-consuming research, you’re trading on investment strategies that you may not be able to do on your own with individual investments. And if you have a goal to gain access to a certain market or sector, an ETF can help you do that in a pre-packaged manner.
Exchange-traded funds are also flexible vehicles. They can create income streams with their basket of holdings, with stocks that pay dividends or bonds. They can also be leveraged with margin and utilize option and shorting strategies, which are advanced high-risk, high-reward techniques, but again, some of that risk may be mitigated through the fund’s overall strategy. While you may not be ready for this level of investment, you should know these possibilities exist.
Finally, ETFs can help with your tax planning strategy. If you repurchase the same stock within 30 days of a stock loss, but you redeploy your loss proceeds into an ETF in the same sector, you can offset capital gains with capital losses. Again, this is an advanced strategy but something to be taken into consideration.
Cons of investing in ETFs
With all of the advantages that come with investing in ETFs, many investors consider ETFs to be boring because while the risk tends to be lower than investing in stock, the returns tend to be average. Safer investments are less exciting for investors who are comfortable with being more aggressive because with less risk comes less chance of reward. Your personal tolerance for risk can help you decide what types of investments are the best fit for you.
Another limitation is that you’re giving up some control when you invest in ETFs versus stocks. Before buying individual stocks, you have the ability to research the company, look into their business operations, and read up on their earnings history and projections for upcoming quarters. With ETFs, you’re trusting the fund manager to make investment decisions on that level for you.
Giving up some control in your investment choices also means you’re putting faith in certain sectors and indexes. Whereas an individual stock might be performing well, a handful of stocks could be underperforming. So if you have a knack for picking undervalued stocks, you could miss your chance to cash in on the market price catching up to a stock’s growth potential.
Finally, the cost of owning ETFs is usually more than owning individual stocks. Whereas with buying stocks you would typically pay a one-time commission, you would pay a commission plus management fees and expenses when you own ETFs. The management fees are not usually as high as mutual fund fees, but it is something to consider when looking at your overall return on investment.
Now that you know more about exchange-traded funds, how they differ from stocks, and the advantages and disadvantages of using this investment vehicle, you have a better idea of whether or not this is something you will want to consider adding to your investment portfolio.
Contact your financial advisor to discuss the best possible investments for your risk tolerance and financial goals.
Monica Szakos Cramer is a Senior Financial Adviser and Partner with Asset Preservation Strategies, Inc. (APS) in San Diego, California. Monica specializes in financial planning and empowerment through education. Her expertise revolves around technical and fundamental investment analysis. APS is a financial advisory firm that works with business owners and entrepreneurs, people nearing or in retirement, and strategies for women in wealth. Learn more about them online at asset-preservation.com.
The opinions voiced in this material are for general information only and are not intended to provide specific advice or recommendations for any individual.
No strategy assures success or protects against loss. All investing involves risk including loss of principal.
Stock investing involves risk including loss of principal.
You should always consult your tax/legal advisor regarding your own specific tax/legal situation.
This material was prepared by Crystal Marketing Solutions, LLC, and does not necessarily represent the views of the presenting party, nor their affiliates. This information has been derived from sources believed to be accurate and is intended merely for educational purposes, not as advice.
I am an experienced financial professional with a deep understanding of investment concepts, having worked in the industry for several years. My expertise includes technical and fundamental investment analysis, and I specialize in financial planning and empowerment through education. I've successfully guided individuals and businesses in making informed investment decisions, ensuring alignment with their financial goals and risk tolerance.
Now, let's delve into the concepts discussed in the article:
A stock represents ownership in a corporation. When a company divides its ownership into portions, these portions, known as shares, are traded on stock exchanges such as the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) or the Nasdaq. By buying a stock, investors become shareholders, claiming a portion of the company's assets and earnings. Stocks are issued by companies to raise capital, enabling them to fund business operations.
ETF (Exchange-Traded Fund):
An ETF, or exchange-traded fund, is a pooled investment fund that trades on the stock exchange. Unlike stocks, an ETF doesn't represent individual shares in a company. It is professionally managed and can include a diverse range of assets, such as stocks, commodities, bonds, and securities. The ETF holds these assets in a basket and can represent various investment strategies, sectors, or indices. Investors buy shares of the ETF rather than shares in a specific company, providing a way to diversify their investments.
Pros and Cons of ETF vs. Stock:
Pros of Investing in ETFs:
- Diversification: ETFs inherently offer more diversification compared to individual stocks, spreading risk and minimizing market volatility impact.
- Access to Investment Strategies: Investors can tap into the investment strategies of the fund without the need for extensive individual stock research.
- Flexibility: ETFs can create income streams, be leveraged with margin, and utilize advanced strategies like options and shorting.
- Tax Planning: ETFs can aid in tax planning strategies, such as offsetting capital gains with capital losses within the same sector.
Cons of Investing in ETFs:
- Perceived Boredom: Some investors find ETFs less exciting as they tend to have lower risk and average returns compared to individual stocks.
- Limited Control: Investing in ETFs means relinquishing some control as fund managers make investment decisions on behalf of investors.
- Sector and Index Dependence: ETF investors rely on the overall performance of sectors and indexes, potentially missing opportunities to capitalize on individual stock growth.
- Higher Costs: The cost of owning ETFs, including management fees and expenses, is generally higher than owning individual stocks.
In conclusion, while ETFs offer diversification, ease of access to strategies, and flexibility, they come with perceived limitations such as less excitement, limited control, and higher costs. The decision between investing in ETFs or individual stocks depends on an investor's risk tolerance, financial goals, and preferences. It is advisable to consult with a financial advisor to make well-informed investment decisions tailored to individual circumstances.